Past Canadian Federal Election Results

Results of all past Canadian federal elections to the House of Commons. Each square represents one seat in the House. Faint grey squares represent seats that have yet to exist/no longer exist. Note that squares are merely stylized renditions of provincial seat counts across the country, grouped from smallest political party delegation to largest. Squares are not located in the geographic part of the province that voted for one party. Seat counts and popular vote numbers from pre-1960 elections can be ambiguous, see information below the map for more.

A word of caution about pre-1960s numbers…

Prior to the 1960s, most Canadian elections would see a couple of MPs elected under labels like “Liberal-Conservative,” “Independent Conservative/Liberal,” “Liberal Labour,” “Liberal Progressive,” and so on.

Some electoral tallies include these MPs (and their share of the popular vote) in the count of whatever party they most closely resemble, while other lists count them as “independents” or put them in the “other” column (it’s not uncommon to see multiple methods of sorting used in different parts of the same report). It is therefore impossible to offer “perfect” statistics on pre-1960s Canadian elections, since the ambiguity of the party system in those days and the subjective judgements of the official vote-counters has muddled the results beyond repair. The four elections between 1921 and 1930 are a particular nightmare of ambiguity, given how much chaos the party system was experiencing at the time.

In deciding who to count as what, I have relied on the data in the book Canada Votes (1962) by Howard A. Scarrow which offers well-researched suggestions for sorting ambiguous MPs in early Canadian elections.

List of Minor Party and Ambiguous MPs

Electoral historians generally conclude that the modern Canadian political party system didn’t really get settled until the dawn of the 20th century. Prior to that, MPs were often elected with extremely ambiguous or complicated labels (“Independent Nationalist Liberal,” etc), or, just as often, no label at all. It’s considered all-but impossible to provide accurate or useful vote counts for Canada’s first three elections.

The chart below begins with Canada’s eighth general election, in 1896, by which time Canada’s party system had become much stronger and clearer, and MPs who identified themselves as something outside the mainstream party system were rare enough to be noteworthy.

Election
Number
Tally
2015
1
1 Green (BC)
2011
1
1 Green (BC)
2008
2
2 independent (NS, QC)
2006
1
1 independent (QC)
2004
1
1 independent (BC)
2000
0
None
1997
1
1 independent (ON)
1993
1
1 independent (QC)
1988
0
None
1984
1
1 independent (ON)
1980
0
None
1979
0
None
1974
2
2 independent (NB, QC)
1972
2
2 independent (ON, QC)
1968
2
1 independent (ON), 1 Liberal Labour (ON)
1965
2
1 independent (QC), 1 Independent Progressive Conservative (QC)
1963
1
1 Liberal Labour (ON)
1962
2
1 CCF (NS), 1 Liberal Labour (ON)
1958
1
1 Liberal Labour (ON)
1957
5
2 independent (QC), 1 Independent Liberal (QC), 1 Liberal Labour (ON), 1 Independent Progressive Conservative (QC)
1953
7
3 independent (QC), 2 Independent Liberal (QC), 1 Liberal Labour (NS), 1 Labour (MB)
1949
7
4 independent (BC, QC), 1 Independent Liberal (ON), 1 Liberal Progressive (MB), 1 Liberal Labour (ON)
1945
19
8 Independent Liberal (BC, QC), 6 independent (QC), 2 Bloc Populaire (QC), 1 Independent CCF (BC), 1 Independent Progressive Conservative (QC), 1 Labour Progressive
1940
14
5 non-National Government Conservative (ON,SK), 3 Liberal Progressive (MB, ON), 2 Unity (SK), 2 Independent Liberal (QC), 1 Independent Conservative (QC), 1 independent (BC)
1935
12
4 Liberal Progressive (MB), 4 Independent Liberal (QC), 1 Reconstruction (BC), 1 independent (BC), 1 UFO-Labour (ON), 1 Independent Conservative (YT)
1930
12
3 Liberal Progressive (MB), 3 Progressive (ON, SK), 2 Labour (MB), 1 Liberal Labour (BC), 1 Progressive Conservative (MB), 1 Independent Labour (BC), 1 independent (BC),
1926
8
3 Labour (AB, MB), 2 independent (BC, QC), 1 United Farmers of Ontario (ON), 1 Liberal Labour (ON), 1 Independent Liberal (QC)
1925
9
2 Labour (MB), 2 United Farmers of Alberta (AB), 2 independent (BC, QC), 1 Independent Liberal (NS), 1 Liberal Progressive (MB), 1 Independent Conservative (ON)
1921
10
3 Labour (AB, MB), 2 United Farmers of Alberta (AB), 2 independent (ON), 1 United Farmers of Ontario (ON), 1 Independent Progressive (ON), 1 Independent Conservative (ON)
1917
12
11 pro-Union Liberal (AB, BC, MB, NB, NS, ON, SK), 1 independent (SK)
1911
3
2 Independent Conservatives (ON, QC), 1 Labour (QC)
1908
7
4 Liberal-Conservative (AB, ON, NS), 1 independent (ON), 1 Independent Conservative (ON), 1 Labour (QC)
1904
8
5 Liberal-Conservative (NB, NT, ON), 1 Independent Conservative (ON), 1 Liberal Labour (BC), 1 independent (ON)
1900
16
10 Liberal-Conservative (NB, ON, PE), 3 independent (MB, ON), 1 Independent Conservative (ON), 1 Independent Liberal (ON), 1 Labour (MB)
1896
25
15 Liberal-Conservative (NB, NT, NS, ON, PE), 4 Independent Conservative (ON), 2 Patrons of Industry (ON), 2 McCarthyite (MB, ON), 1 Independent Liberal, 1 independent (NB)